The College of Pastoral Supervision & Psychotherapy is a theologically based covenant community, dedicated to "recovery of the soul" and promoting competency in the clinical pastoral field.
"The minister, the story tells us, is sitting among the poor, binding his/her wounds one at a time, waiting for the moment when he/she will be needed. The minister is called to be the wounded healer, the one who must look after his/her wounds and at the same time be prepared to heal the wounds of others.” --- Henri Nouwen.
In his article titled “Wounded Healers”, Thomas Maeder quotes a child of psychiatrists (both parents): “I Think my parents were crazy, I think that, somehow, being psychiatrists kept them in line. They used it as a protection.They’re both quite crazy, but their jobs give them really good cover.”
It is no secret that the so-called “helping professions”, such as nursing, social work, psychotherapy and ministry, attract people for curious, and sometimes some rather crazy, and psychologically suspect, reasons. Many rather odd people proclaim, “I want to help people”. The underlying assumption being that they are in a position to help and that others will want to be helped by them.
Consider the profession of ministry. What might be some unhealthy reasons people are “lured” or “called”, knowingly or unknowingly, consciously or unconsciously, into the ministry?
(1) Being in a position of authority
(2) Dependence of others
(3) Wanting to have a benevolent image
(4) Position of adulation
(5) The hope of vicariously helping themselves by helping others
George Christian Anderson, in a book edited by Wayne Oates, “The Minister’s Own Mental Health”, writes about exploiting the clinical profession: “Some clergy consciously or unconsciously exploit their profession to satisfy child-hood needs for attention. Children who are insecure, or who lack affection, endeavor to obtain these things by attracting attention to themselves….Some persons never outgrow infantile needs for attention and, not having the emotional maturity to satisfy these needs in a mature way, continue to behave like children.” How is this actualized? One way is by using the pulpit to satisfy one’s need for attention. The motives of a minister who says “I just love to preach”, may be quite suspect. Another way is dependency on constant admiration for security, and needing to be admired by others to boost one’s ego. Unfortunately, the person who is solely dependent on external strokes (co-dependent personalities), often have high positions in their denominations or church organizations.
Carroll Wise has pointed out the problem of what he called the “neurotic need for helping other people.” Certainly, the desire to help others is not necessarily a sign of some kind of emotional imbalance. But such a desire may stem from unresolved unconscious need. Sigmund Freud theorized that a strong desire to help others stems from longings that are the consequence of child-hood losses. Such folk grew up in rejecting and dysfunctional families and were led to what Karl Menninger called, “an unhealthy professional interest in lonely, eccentric, and unloved people.”
The idea of the “wounded healer” did not originate with Henri Nouwen. It has ancient roots. In Greek mythology, Chiron, who taught medicine, suffered an incurable wound from the hands of Hercules. Saint Augustine was not alone among Christians in using his own weaknesses and his struggles against them to help him find compassion and strength. Mythology and religion are full of those who must learn to heal themselves before healing others and who must recognize and forgive their sins before they can, with authentic humility and understanding, forgive another. Freud himself often drew upon his own experiences to show that he regularly used his own wounds to aid the empathic process. Having emotional problems may not be a prerequisite or an advantage for a minister, but having had past wounds is not in itself a handicap, so long as these wounds have been recognized, confronted and reasonably resolved (accepted).
The danger comes when the wounded healer has not successfully dealt with, accepted, and therefore, cannot control his or her wounds or injuries. The minister can follow one of two paths. The more difficult, but ultimately the most satisfying, road leads to some painful confrontations with a person’s own problems and weaknesses, and ultimately to a healthy self-understanding. Ideally, the person can accept their wounds as a part of their history, which can lead to embracing one’s own pilgrimage. The end result being that one has a reasonably clear picture of their own needs and ambitions and why they are in ministry. It can enable the person to approach others with honesty, compassion and humility---knowing that one is motivated by genuine concern and not an unhealthy or unresolved motive.
The other path is easier and less painful, but disastrous. The minister comes, consciously or unconsciously, to see ministry as way of avoiding the need to deal with his or her problems. Such a person is able to justify their actions in almost every circumstance and, when necessary, to shift the blame onto someone else when the going gets rough. There are those who, as a result of a rejected childhood, become rigid and demanding preachers who exhort and chastise their flock from above, who have no sympathy for their weaknesses, and who condemn their church members’ transgressions, instead of leading them to an understanding of a grace- filled life. Basically, they do not understand their parishioners because they do not understand themselves, and they cannot help others with their emotional problems because their own solution is to repress their problems and, therefore, be unable to deal with them.
One of the most interesting and significant is the person (often the first born) who is rushed through childhood too quickly, who was forced to become a little adult. Such people grow up believing that hard work and responsibility are the only things that give them value in others’ eyes. They have a chronic low self-image and have great difficulty receiving love and acceptance from others. It is only their selfishly selfless labors that make them feel satisfied with themselves. As a result, these people may be driven into a frenzy of wholesale helping which is motivated, not by genuine concern, but by a desperate need to fill a vacancy. A Jungian scholar puts it this way: “They give too much, without knowing how to receive. They build up all kinds of inhibitions against taking or receiving anything for themselves—which is labor. They easily justify this attitude biblically by saying, ‘It is more blessed to give than to receive’. They are into loving their God and loving their neighbor, but forget that crucial addition: ‘as yourself’.” To put it another way, they are people who search for wholeness in ministry, rather than to express wholeness through their ministry.
Ernest Jones, who best known as Freud’s biographer, wrote a paper entitled, “The God Complex”. He described those in the helping professions (who have such a complex), as having a subtle belief in their own importance, and are unable to see anyone else as comparably important which, of course, colors every aspect of their relationships. Jones goes on to characterize them as aloof, inaccessible people who are happiest in their own home—in privacy and seclusion—with a desire to withdraw from the world. They tend to have fantasies of power and believe themselves to be omniscient. Jones felt that people with God complexes were more likely than others to go into psychology and related professions.
It is no secret that ministry attracts people with God complexes. Ministers are sometimes expected and expect others to address questions that are well outside the range of their expertise. Because of their education (theology and psychology) the minister is sometimes expected to understand all things human and divine. And those with God complexes often do not understand their limitations, and to not have the personal strength and equilibrium to resist the temptations of such power and tend to thrive on adoration of others because of the self-importance they feel. Carl Jung believed that a person who is in a place of power, and who has a self-centered complex, and who wields it in the name of some perceived ultimate good, is always potentially dangerous.
The “God complex” is, of course, related to narcissism a disorder having to do with grandiose self-images, unrealistic notions of one’s ability, power and wealth, intelligence and appearance, and who feels they deserves things they have not earned simply by virtue of grandiose importance.
What type of home environment breeds narcissistic people? According to Heinz Kohut, the narcissistic person is generally deprived in infancy and childhood of the affection and emotional interactions with their parents that would have allowed the normal development of a distinct sense of personal value. The parents, who are often narcissistic themselves, did not treat the child as a dependent person of worth, but instead used the child for their own gratification. As a result, the child’s self-worth was stunted and the child’s values were structured around an ability to comprehend and fulfill the parents’ wishes. This ability is then perfected. As caregivers, narcissistic people are insensitive and lacking in empathy. Though they make an extravagant show of generosity and concern for others, this behavior inevitably proves to be just that—a show, which serves to polish the fine image they strive to hold of themselves. Unfortunately, the ministry is wrought with those with grandiose self-images (to cover an unacceptable low self-image). Practically every Sunday you can see them preaching in pulpits and on television.
Maxine Glaz affirms Nouwen’s premise that one’s experience of loss and pain (wounds) can be facilitators for effective pastoral work. However, she rightly asserts that there are limits to the usefulness of suffering as potential sources of strength and empathy in pastoral care giving. There are simply those with serious emotional problems (some who have been abused as children) who exhibit such negative patterns of involvement with others that they cannot be empathetic pastoral caregivers. For some, being a victim of past abuse or neglect can cause them to form victim identities. Such victims may well acknowledge their past helplessness to fend off violence, but continue to live by fending off violence others don’t intend. This constant defensiveness, or being constantly on guard, becomes a way of life. They have been unable to get a mature balanced perception of their personal histories or of those around them.
It is essential for people to understand that the suffering and pains they endured in their pasts were often not merited; that they were not necessarily of fault and that they can and need to develop trusting relationships. Such insight and maturity often involves extensive therapy which may result in allowing the person to develop a healthy understanding of their history, and to put a proper perspective on their abused and pains to escape the conclusion that no one is to be trusted.
In his book, THE WOUNDED HEALER, Henri Nouwen writes of an old legend in the Talmud which gives a picture of how ministry to others can unfold:
“Rabbi Yoshua ben Leir came upon Elijah the Prophet while
He was standing at the entrance of Rabbi Simeron ben Yohai’s
cave….He asked Elijah, ‘When will the Messiah come?’ Elijah
replied, ‘Go and ask him yourself’…..’Where is he?’ ‘Sitting at
the gates of the city.’ ‘How shall I know him?’ ‘He is sitting
among the poor covered with wounds. The others unbind all
their wounds and the same time and then bind them up again.
But he unbinds one at a time and binds it up again, saying to
himself, ‘Perhaps I shall be needed; if so, I must always be
ready so as not to delay for a moment’.”
In his somewhat pious way, Nouwen asserts (and I repeat), that the minister is the one who must look after his own wounds (therapy)but at the same time be prepared to heal the wounds of others. Nouwen lists separation, isolation, loneliness and alienation as wounds the minister endures tries to endure. He does not get into the personal psychological reason for these wounds, but rather the situations in which the minister finds himself doing ministry. As to loneliness he writes, “Óur failure to change the world with our good intensions and sincere actions and undesired displacement to the edges of life, have made us aware that the wound (loneliness) is still there.” He sees the minister’s loneliness as the result of not being included in much of the center of people’s lives: “The painful irony is that the minister, who wants to touch the center of men’s lives, finds himself on the periphery; often pleading in vain for admission….He never seems to be where the action is.” I wonder if this says more about Henri Nouwen than it does about the minister’s involvement in critical and crisis situations.
Paul Tillich, one of my favorite theologians, writes (The Courage to Be) about the importance of having the courage to accept acceptance. This does not mean just being accepted now, but the acceptance of our whole being—our whole life. Courage is the affirmation of one’s being---the act of affirming all the wounds of the past and embracing them—embracing the whole of one’s life and one’s whole selfhood.
G.B.George Buck, Ph.D., is a Diplomate in the College of Pastoral Supervision & Psychotherapy and is dually certified as a Pastoral Psychotherapist and as a Clinical Pastoral Education Supervisor. Dr. Buck supervises the part-time and extended units of CPE at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences-Medical Center Little Rock, Arkansas.
Posted by Perry Miller, Editor at 1:35 PM
The PR has learned that Malcolm Ballinger, a member of the Ohio Valley Chapter since its founding in 1992, died in early November. A service in celebration of his life was held in Indianapolis on Friday, November 17, 2006.
On the Ohio Valley Chapter web site, there is an article written by Malcolm, detailing his interest and participation in the Pastoral movement beginning in 1935. He writes:
"My interest in pastoral psychology began with my first clinical pastoral training under the supervision of Carroll A. Wise when I was a student at Boston University School of Theology. Dr. Wise was at that time (1935) chaplain supervisor at Worcester State Hospital, where he had succeeded Dr. Anton Boisen. This clinical training experience was the most important thing that had happened up to that point in my theological education, and I wanted to get more of it."
To read the full article, go to:
http://cpspovalley.org and click on "News," then click on his article.
Posted by Perry Miller, Editor at 10:08 PM
The Fall 2006 NCTS was spectacular! Dr. David Franzen helped us to wrap our minds around the Attachment Theory of John Bowlby. His presentation provoked a lot of questions and comments and we all left Mahwah, New Jersey more enlightened and energetic. This seminar was our largest by far. We had over sixty participants. Please read the reflections from Chaplain Linda Walsh, Chaplain Jerry Shields and Chaplain Linda Lewis for more comments on the fall NCTS.
I have heard some concerns from members who wished the NCTS was closer in proximity to them so that they could attend as well. In response to that! I have decided to go on the road with the NCTS! Yes, I am in the initial stages of planning a series of seminars throughout the many regions of where many of our ‘spiritual pilgrims’ reside. Since as a community we place ‘premium on the significance of relationships among us and in an effort to bring our ‘mid-wifery’ closer to our members, NCTS is making it’s way to you. I realize that it may take a few years to get to all of our extended communities, so please be patient. I am open to ideas from our members.
Now, what do I need from the members of our CPSP Community? Those who are interested in bringing a replica of NCTS to your area and who are willing to help me plan the seminar AND are aware of retreat centers that I may contact, please email me. The NCTS will continue to meet in the fall and spring in the New York/New Jersey areas.
Here we go! We are headed for the San Antonio area in July or August! AND, hopefully, in September or October we can target our next area, but I NEED to hear from you! We plan to provide registration information via our CPSP website! WOW!
In the process,
Posted by Perry Miller, Editor at 9:49 PM
When I entered the grounds of the Mahwah Retreat center, there was something refreshing and welcoming about its appearance. Upon entering the building, I found myself surrounded by persons of different ethnicities, races, religion, etc. There was a rich collegial atmosphere at this seminar.
The attachment theory of John Bowlby presented by Dr. David Franzen, was enlightening and brought back childhood memories. Coming from a large family, I was able to revisit attachment/detachment on many different levels. This presentation allowed me to do self-inventory and I found myself in agreement with the core of this theory.
The heart of this seminar is the small group experience where clinical cases are presented. The cases that were presented were all gifts and full of learning opportunities. My small group leader was challenging and very insightful. What was initially seen as the obvious became more complex with the help of her astute observations.
Finally, I arrived to the group relation seminar (Tavistock Model) Yes, I was one of those who were not familiar with the model. The old timers versus the new comers were obvious in this setting. But when I challenged myself to be a part of the seminar, I felt the comforting and compelling presence of oneness that inundated the room. This was my first but it will not be my last NCTS.
I feel like I am a part of the process in continuing to take a journey that CPSP can provide. I was not only empowered by the seminars. Equally true, I was surrounded by peers and colleagues who were nurturing and at the same time challenged me to focus on my growing edge. Although I serve as a chaplain at Rikers Island and completed four units of CPE at the Healthcare Chaplaincy, this experience was the apex of my entire CPE journey.
Posted by Perry Miller, Editor at 4:14 PM
Recently, I attended a teleconference offered by the Catholic Health Association which featured Richard Payne, M.D. who is Director of Duke University’s Institute on Care at the end of Life at Duke University Divinity School in Durham, North Carolina. The subject of the audio-conference was “Disparity in the End-of-Life Care: Communities of Color and Ideas for Change.” It was a good conference that highlighted needed changes in our national healthcare system especially for making care at the end of life more accessible to minorities.
During the conference, Dr. Payne quoted from The Turning Point: Science, Society and the Rising Culture by Fitjof Capra who said, “The most important force in health care revolution is a strong grass-roots movement of individuals and newly formed organizations dissatisfied with the existing system.”
I do not believe anyone involved in healthcare would argue the fact that our healthcare system needs overhauling. That was the main point I took away from another lecture by John C. Nelson, M.D. this past May when I attended the Association of Professional Chaplains annual conference in Atlanta. Dr. Nelson did a remarkable job of outlining the problems with our national healthcare system and offering workable solutions. He received a warm response by the Association.
As we all learned, either in our classes in behavioral science, in Clinical Pastoral Education (CPE), or in therapy, the first step to solving a problem is to recognize and admit there is a problem. “Denial ain’t just a ‘river in Egypt,’” as Stewart Smalley says. Then there is the old joke, “How many psychologists does it take to change a light bulb?” Answer: “One, but only if it really wants to change.” “Wanting to change” is the second step.
As Capra points out, “wanting to change” begins with dissatisfaction over the way things are. And it seems that the biggest resistance to change comes from those who are simply satisfied with the status quo. As a profession of chaplains and pastoral educators, we must never get to the place where we are merely satisfied with “the existing system.” We cannot afford to simply “stay the course.” I remember well one of my CPE supervisors saying, “Never stop pushing your growing edges.” That is true for us as individuals, but it is also true for us as a profession as well.
To quote Capra again, “The most important force in health care revolution is a strong grass-roots movement of individuals and newly formed organizations dissatisfied with the existing system.” In the College oof Pastoral Supervision and Psychotherapy (CPSP), I have found that grass-root movement of individuals who have formed a relatively new organization. Yes, they were, and still are, dissatisfied . . . “with the existing system.”
For personal and family reasons, I have chosen to remain located in central Arkansas. I have found a place to practice my profession as a chaplain in a health system here. However, the opportunities for personal and professional development have been rather limited in this part of the country. For example, the nearest Association for Clinical Pastoral Education (ACPE) program offering training in Supervisory CPE is a several hours’ drive away from where I live and work. However, through CPSP, I have recently found an opportunity where I can pursue becoming a CPE Supervisor as a Supervisor in Training while remaining in central Arkansas. I am grateful for this “grass-roots movement” of individuals who became “dissatisfied with the existing system” and formed the organization of CPSP, making Supervisory Training more “accessible” here and elsewhere in the country.
I truly believe that CPSP is the “most important force” in the pastoral care movement today. And it is a force that is not going away.
Staff Chaplain, BCC.,BCCC
Department of Pastoral Care
University of Arkansas For Medical Sciences
Little Rock, AR
Posted by Perry Miller, Editor at 4:04 PM
Once again, this fall’s National Clinical Training Seminar has proven to be an enlightening educational tool and challenged our own awareness experiences. The Rev. Dr. David Franzen talked boldly about recognizing the person within ourselves, our patient and intern. To question and seek - “Who is in there?” What were the childhood experiences that formed this reflection?
Using the research and teachings of social scientist, John Bowlby (circa 1960), we were led on an exploration into the relational dynamics of “Attachment vs. Detachment” behavior. Bowlby recognized the necessary instinctual goal of ‘attachment’ behavior in the formative stages of development as the drive to achieve proximity and approval of the significant loved person (mother). Failure at this, causes a detachment anxiety which arrests normal emotional maturity forcing a ‘detachment’ that can persist a lifetime. Recognize these possibilities in anyone?
Our colleagues recognized the similarities in our own CPE interns with open discussion of successes and faux pas in this process. All agreed that teaching interns/students the simple art of saying hello and a process of saying goodbye could stave off the separation anxiety often witnessed in group. Dr. Franzen also emphasized, through the Crisis Intervention Theory, that responsible pastoral care is critical for healthy coping and restoration; acknowledging the patient’s increased susceptibility to change during crisis.
The Tavistock session was lively and highlighted the CPSP commitment to exploring our differences as strengths. I now believe a Tavistock primer at the plenary would promote more effective focus to the assigned task.
Rev. Francine Angel’s commitment to education provided the 62 attendees with wisdom and networking opportunities. Needless to say, the resonance of ‘attachment vs. detachment’ led to many sidebar discussions and study group insights that will journey with each member - multiplying the viability of the CPSP vision.
Linda Walsh is a member of the Washington Heights CPSP Chapter located in NYC.
Posted by Perry Miller, Editor at 12:16 PM
The Department of Chaplaincy received a proclamation of recognition from the Mayor of the city of Arecibo, Puerto Rico, The Hon. Lemuel Soto Santiago at a ceremony celebrated at the historical Center of culture and history Casa Ulanga.
The Director of Clinical Chaplaincy from Hospice La Paz and Supervisor in Clinical Pastoral Education In Training, The Rev. Dr. Miguel A. Santiago (center) with the first CPE graduates in Puerto Rico. From left to right Rev. Samuel Marty, Rev. Dr. Gerardo Cartagena, Rev. Luís A. Pérez, and Rev. Dr. Héctor W. Velásquez
We have made it! A little over a year ago we announced the beginning of CPE for the first time in Puerto Rico under the College of Pastoral Supervision and Psychotherapy (CPSP). It has been an exited year. Our first group of Staff Chaplains completed four units of CPE. A wonderful reception of graduation was celebrated this past 3 November 2006. The Mayor of the City of Arecibo The Hon. Lemuel Soto Santiago presented Rev. Dr. Miguel Santiago with a proclamation designating the 3rd of Nov. 2006 as the day of clinical chaplaincy in Arecibo. We had the honor of celebrating the graduation in an historical city building dating to the 1850.
I appreciate Dr. Raymond Lawrence my CPE Supervisor and David Plummer (CCAPS) for working the final issues to bring CPSP to Puerto Rico. Also to Dr. Esteban Montilla my Supervisor, and Dr. Richard Liew my Consultant I extend my appreciation for their invaluable information and recommendations. Finally I thank Dr. Steven Voytovich, NY/NJ CPSP Chapter Convener, and the Chapter at large for my acceptance under care.
-Miguel A. Santiago
Miguel A. Santiago is the director of Clinical Chaplaincy from Hospice La Paz and Supervisor in Clinical Pastoral Clinical Education In Training.
Posted by Perry Miller, Editor at 11:35 PM
This was my first experience at a National Training Clinical Seminar (NTCS) sponsored by the College of Pastoral Supervision and Psychotherapy (CPSP), and it was a good one. This was one of those many occasions in my life in which I was hesitant about going but after it was all over I was glad I did. Most of the people were strangers, the traveling distance from the security and familiar surroundings of Virginia, more time away from work and family, and many more reasons did not make the decision to attend an easy one.
One of the significant influences of this training was how helpful it was to my personal adjustment stage of mandatory retirement (at the age of 62) from the Navy Chaplain ministry and the transitioning I'm going through back to civilian life. The subject matter couldn't have been more appropriate for me. It was like going to church and feeling like the minister's sermon was written just for me.
"Attachment & Separation/Anxiety Theory" of John Bowlby was the didactic presentation for the two days by Dr. David Franzen, a CPSP Diplomate. I mentally acknowledged and viscerally felt the pain and joy of the truth of Bowlby's theory as it applied to my retirement stage. John Bowlby (1907-1990) was a British development psychologist of the psychoanalytic tradition, who I had never heard of in all my years of academic and practical education and training. Google his name and you will learn more about his psychoanalytic theory.
Bowlby's theory of attachment is based on instinctual behavioral patterns developed and integrated within an "environment of adaptedness." Although his focus is biological, e.g. the child's attachment to mother, for me there is a real sense understanding of the dynamics of attachment developing within a community, such as the church or the Navy. Dr. Franzen presented a personal slice of his family that demonstrated this, and he also provided a theological reflection on attachment. To quote from one of his slides: "In the Genesis creation story, humans are created to live in relationship with God and with each other." This would be the ultimate attachment theory.
I was mindful of the many, varied types of attachments over the years of my life. Names and faces of parents, children, pets, relatives, neighbors, colleagues, surfaced to reveal how much I was attached and shaped by the significant influence of their relationships. The key to managing the distress of separation from these attachments depends on the care receive. From one of the studies (Robertson Foster Parenting Study) it was demonstrated that "care by a responsive foster mother holds anxiety at a manageable level and permits positive development." The value of a good pastoral care plan for a patient and a personal care-for-the-caregiver plan was affirmed again.
All kinds of attachment associations began ringing, such as, "I will cling to the old rugged cross," and "hate what is evil and cling to what is good"( Romans 12:9). I paraphrased the words of Shakespeare, "To cling or not to cling, that is the question (or dilemma) we face all the days of our lives.
Someone at the retreat made the statement that CPSP is all about attachment, and this community is where I have found my new sense of support and care that will hopefully help me manage the stress of separation anxieties and grief in retirement and the loss of parents and friends. This support and care has already been received from particular persons at the retreat and my local CPSP chapter.
The two days were full of great food at three meals a day plus evening snacks, meeting strangers and making new friends, sharing and learning among the CPSP extended family and process of case studies; and all this within the beautiful pastoral setting of the Carmel Retreat Center in the mountains of New Jersey.
Jerry K. Shields is a Pastoral Counselor & Clinical Chaplain at the Portsmouth Naval Medical Center, Portsmouth, VA.
Posted by Perry Miller, Editor at 10:34 PM
It is not too early. . . or . . . too late to register for the 2007 International Council of Pastoral Care & Counseling's (ICPCC) 8th World Congress gathering in Poland!
If you have not ever attended an international gathering such as this, then you are in for a real treat . . . if you decide to go to this Congress. At this quadrennial meeting, you’ll meet some of the leading lights in our field from around the world . . . . theoreticians and clinicians . . academics and practitioners . . . chaplains, pastoral psychotherapists, and CPE Supervisors from Europe, Africa, North & South America, the Carribean, Australia, New Zealand, the Pacific Islands, and Asia.
You’ll gain a whole new experience and perspective . . . the toad’s periscopic view of the world enlarges to that of an eagle’s panavision view. What more can you ask? Yes . . . you’ll also be a part of the CPSP contingent from around the globe that will be there. CPSP is a prominent and active member of ICPCC.
So . . . come . . . join us! You may speak to any of the following individuals if you need further information: Steven Voytovich, John DeVelder, Raymond Lawrence or Richard Liew.
International Council on Pastoral Care and Counselling
The 8th Worldwide Congress of the ICPCC
August 7 - 14, 2007, Krzyzowa, Poland
"TREASURE IN EARTHEN VESSELS" - The Care of Souls Facing Fragility and Destruction:
Individual and Systemic Perspectives
Posted by Perry Miller, Editor at 7:49 PM